Apple OS X
Copyright 2002-04, 2008-09 by Ronald B. Standler
Table of Contents
Software for OS X
Firewall & Anti-Virus Software
Wordprocessor & Text Editor
I have used Apple computers since May 1992,
primarily for music composition and wordprocessing.
Since May 2002, I have also used an Apple computer
as my principal machine for e-mail and webbrowsing,
as a way of obtaining additional protection from
malicious computer programs
(e.g., viruses and worms) that are prevalent for
computers running some version of Microsoft Windows. The Windows
makes users of Windows vulnerable to a wide variety of malicious programs.
The last version of the traditional (i.e., begun in 1984)
Apple Macintosh operating system is version 9.2.2.
My separate webpage on OS 9 mentions my favorite software
for this traditional Macintosh environment and some hints on how to run this old
software on a modern Apple computer. After Apple switched from the
PowerPC microprocessor to Intel microprocessors, programs written for the old Macintosh
operating systems (OS 9 and earlier) are difficult — but
not impossible —
to run on modern Apple computers with Intel microprocessors.
In the middle of year 2001, Apple began shipping its computers with
a copy of OS X installed, in addition to either
OS 9.1 or OS 9.2.
The X in the name of the new operating system is
the Roman numeral for ten.
More importantly, OS X is based on Unix from the University
of California at Berkeley.
The Unix foundation makes OS X very resistant to crashes.
When an application crashes, it does not also crash OS X.
System X includes an optional UNIX command line interface, which
is the first time since 1984 that an Apple operating system has contained
a command line. I have programmed computers since 1968 and I prefer
using a command line interface (e.g., like DOS), instead
of a graphical user interface.
Apple refers to the various editions of operating system by names of big cats:
- Cheetah 10.0
- Puma 10.1
- Jaguar 10.2
- Panther 10.3
- Tiger 10.4
- Leopard 10.5
- Snow Leopard 10.6
Since the mid-1990s, Apple computers have been shipped with minimal
printed manuals. Users need to purchase a third-party book
to fully understand how to use OS X.
I have found the following books helpful:
Apple Computer maintains an extensive online collection of technical
information on their software and hardware in their so-called
Knowledge Base and
- David Pogue, Mac OS X: The Missing Manual, published by
- Kevin M White, Mac OS X Support Essentials, Second Edition, published by Peachpit
You may want to subscribe to a computer magazine that specializes in Apple
computers and software, such as MacWorld,
to learn about solutions for current problems and new software.
OS X contains maintenance scripts to run some housekeeping tasks
Therefore, it is a good idea to leave the computer on continuously in the sleep
(i.e., low-power) mode, except while away on vacation.
- daily, at 03:15
- weekly, at 04:30 on each Saturday
- monthly, at 05:30 on the first day of each month
I refuse to use any Microsoft applications software on my Apple computer,
because of (1) Microsoft's longstanding, evil, monopolistic practices
and because (2) using Microsoft software exposes me to many tens of thousands
of malicious computer programs written for Microsoft software.
For security reasons, I do not say which anti-virus software and which firewall software that I use.
The following links to vendors of software are provided for the convenience of readers.
Firewall & Anti-Virus Software
Examples of Malicious Computer Programs,
at my professional website, explains why users need anti-virus software.
Another essay at my professional website,
Tips for Avoiding Computer Crime,
explains why users need
Apple OS 10.2 and later includes a firewall program that blocks ports.
There are only a few anti-virus and firewall software programs
available for the Apple operating system:
I think it makes sense to purchase a bundled security suite of software from one manufacturer
that includes both anti-virus protection and a firewall.
Using a suite is not only less expensive,
but it helps obtain seamless compatibility between the elements of the security software.
Apple includes in OS X their Safari browser.
There are other webbrowsers for the Macintosh OS X:
Microsoft released version 5.2.3 of Internet Explorer for Macintosh OS X in June 2003.
This was the final version of Internet Explorer for the Macintosh and is no longer supported
- Firefox, open-source browser.
Firefox uses Mozilla's Gecko engine.
- Opera browser from a company in Norway.
- i-Cab browser from Alexander Clauss in Germany.
- Flock, intended for social networking websites
(Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, etc.). Uses Mozilla's Gecko engine.
- Camino and
other open-source software that uses Mozilla's Gecko engine.
- Netscape Navigator, was the first commercial
webbrowser (introduced in 1994). The final owner of Netscape, AOL,
discontinued support and development of Netscape on 1 Feb 2008.
Netscape 5.0 became open-source in 1998, and is distributed by the Mozilla Foundation.
The default webbrowser used by OSX when a user clicks on a link (e.g., in e-mail or an Adobe
PDF document) is specified in the Preferences for Safari, in the General tab.
All webbrowsers seem to have security flaws. Using an uncommon webbrowser may
give you some protection from hackers who target vulnerabilities in webbrowsers
with a large share of the market. I emphasize "may", because if the flaw is in a common component,
such as Mozilla's Gecko engine, the flaw will affect all webbrowsers that use that engine.
Apple includes their own Mail program with OS X.
Other e-mail programs for OS X include:
Apple has a handy sheet
for information from your ISP to enter into the Mail program.
- Eudora. In 2007, Qualcomm stopped developing Eudora.
An open-source version of Eudora is available from Mozilla, called
- Thunderbird, open-source software from Mozilla.
Apple OS X includes a Telnet/SSH program, called Terminal.
Informative webpages about Terminal have been posted by
I use the Fetch file-transfer protocol (FTP)
program to upload files from my computer to my websites.
Wordprocessor & Text Editor
Corel discontinued WordPerfect for the Macintosh on 29 Oct 1999,
about two years before OS X appeared.
If you want to see WordPerfect release in an OS X version,
send an e-mail to Corel.
It is not good for computer users when Microsoft Word is the
only major wordprocessor for OS X.
I am continuing to use the old, unsupported, but still excellent,
WordPerfect 3.5 in
Mac OS 9.
Other wordprocessors for Apple OS X:
The widely acclaimed BBEdit text editor
is available in OS X native form.
I admire the slogan for this text editor: "It doesn't suck."
Apple includes its TextEdit program with OS X.
Instead of using a wordprocessor,
one can use a version of the TEX typesetting program that includes
mathematics typesetting features. Because this is open-source software, you get to assemble
your own software. You will need at least:
(1) the TEX distribution software, (e.g., iTEXMac),
(2) a text editor (e.g., BBEdit), and
(3) a viewer.
I have not yet personally tried TEX, but I have collected the following links
to components and instructions at:
Discussions and recommendations:
Disk defragmentation refers to writing each file in one contiguous space on the hard drive,
so the head does not need to jump around on the disk while reading the file. Disk optimization
refers to writing frequently accessed files in one region of the disk, writing infrequently accessed
files in another region, and putting all of the free space in one contiguous block.
Since hard disk drives first appeared on personal computers in the
early 1980s, users have needed to run a utility program to defragment and optimize the disk drive
for fast performance and to restore a large block of free space on the hard drive.
Beginning with OS 10.3, Apple had included automatic defragmentation when opening files
with sizes less than 20 megabytes. Apple no longer
use of defragmentation or optimization software.
My experience has been different: after only twenty months of using OS 10.5,
there were almost 9000 fragments in 18 Gigabytes of files and directories on
my hard disk. While I had 56 Gigabytes of free space on the hard disk,
the largest block of contiguous free space was less than 1 Gigabyte.
It took about two hours to optimize my hard disk with TechTool Pro.
If you want to use defragmentation/optimization
software, the following are the leading utility programs:
One of the nicest things to do with a computer is to use an optical scanner
to convert a printed page of text to a graphics file, then use
optical character recognition software to convert the graphics file
to a text file that can be used in wordprocessing software or uploaded
to a website. This technology spares us from tediously retyping pages
of old text.
If you have a scanner that was manufactured before the year 2001,
there is a chance that the manufacturer of the scanner has no drivers
to interface the old scanner to a computer running Apple OS X.
You can either purchase a new scanner that has drivers for OS X
or you can try programs from:
- Hamrick Software or
- LaserSoft Imaging.
Personally, I continue to use my old scanner and optical character
recognition software in OS 9, which works well.
I hate the reliance of both the Windows and Macintosh operating systems
on a mouse to point to commands. The mouse is just an invitation
to repetitive motion injuries!
Of all of the pointing devices that I have tried, I prefer the
"Expert Mouse" trackball.
The ball has a diameter of 6 cm and can be rolled with the palm of one's
hand, without putting additional stress on one's fingers.
The keyboard that comes with most computers, including Apple computers,
is a cheap commodity keyboard. I use the
A single USB port on a computer can support up to 127 devices. To connect more than one
device to a port, one needs a hub, which commonly provides sockets for four to seven devices.
I suggested getting a powered hub, which can supply DC power to operate floppy drives, modems, and
other peripherals. Manufacturers of powered USB hubs include
Port Authority and
It is necessary for the minority of people who use Apple computers
to somehow be compatible with the majority of people who use some version
of the Microsoft Windows operating system.
Apple OS X will recognize a CD-ROM or Zip disk that is formatted
in DOS or Windows 98.
For the traditional Apple computers that contained a PowerPC microprocessor
(the successor to the Motorola 68000 series microprocessors used in the Apple
Macintosh computers since 1984), one can run programs for DOS or Windows
by using software to emulate an Intel microprocessor's commands on the
Motorola microprocessor in the Apple computer.
The best-known PC emulator software is Virtual PC from
Connectix, which was purchased by Microsoft in mid-2003.
The new Apple computers use an Intel microprocessor, and one can install a Microsoft
operating system (e.g., XP or Vista) on the hard disk drive, using one of the following:
In January 2008, Apple required the entire Windows system to be installed on one partition
(i.e., all files on the C: drive). I like to put my wordprocessing and data files on the D: drive
and programs on the C: drive, so that I can backup the D: drive weekly, without copying unchanged
Note that Apple Boot Camp officially supports only Windows XP with Service Pack 2
and Windows Vista. Some of the other vendors also support DOS, WfW 3.11, and
All users of Windows should have current anti-virus software and firewall software
installed on their computer, if they connect to the Internet from within Windows.
MS-DOS in VMware Fusion 2
In March 2009, I installed MS-DOS 6.22 in a virtual machine running under VMware Fusion2.0.
Fusion prefers to boot an operating system from a CD/DVD drive.
Fusion apparently can not boot from a floppy disk in a USB floppy drive attached to an Apple computer.
Because most computers in the early 1990s (when DOS6.22 and WfW3.11 were in widespread use) did not
have the capability to record a CD-R disk, it is difficult to make a bootable CD-R with DOS on it.
For that reason, I have posted my notes for how
to install MS-DOS 6.22 in Fusion2.
VMware has posted its MS-DOS installation instructions in their
Article Nr. 1004063.
Note the following limitations of DOS in Fusion2:
- Only VGA graphics (640×480 pixels) are available in Fusion 2.0 for DOS/WfW3.11
This means that Windows 3.1 will look worse in Fusion 2 than it did on a typical
computer in the year 1995.
This also means that Windows 3.1 files copied from a computer running WfW3.11 with SVGA
(1024×768 pixels) will not run in Fusion 2.
- Fusion will not allow DOS to read/write to a floppy drive on the USB bus.
The so-called floppy drive in Fusion only reads disk images that have been prepared by Apple's
- Modern printers that use a USB interface are not accessible by DOS running under Fusion,
because there is no USB driver. (Virtual PC from Connectix/Microsoft
allowed DOS to access a printer with a USB interface, but Virtual PC only runs on OS9.)
A computer without a printer is almost worthless,
especially if you want to write/run programs or use a wordprocessor in DOS.
- Neither MS-DOS 6.22 nor IBM PC-DOS 7 can write to a CD-R drive.
Writing to a CD-R drive might be possible if one has an
additional DOS or WfW 3.1 application program to write CD-R disks.
- Individual DOS files (e.g., wordprocessor documents) are not available unless
Fusion is running the virtual machine that contains those files.
A backup of files in Mac OS X will
copy the entire virtual machine (containing all of the DOS files) as one large file.
On a Mac mini with an Intel Core2Duo microprocessor at 1.83 GHz with 2 GBytes of RAM:
Norton Utilities for DOS version 8, System Information, reports that the virtual machine runs
6.0 times faster than a Pentium 66 MHz microprocessor, for an effective speed of a Pentium
microprocessor at approximately 400 MHz.
One can use software designed for the Macintosh plus a utility program
to convert wordprocessing files for Windows,
graphics files for Windows, and various formats
of data files for Windows. The file conversion utility that I currently use on
my Apple computer is
MacLinkPlus, from DataViz.
Most wordprocessing and other programs have options to write files
in different formats when using the SaveAs command from the File menu.
Also, most wordprocessing programs have a limited set of file conversion
programs included, which operate automatically when one tries to
open a document file that was created in another wordprocessor.
While it is easy to use conversion utility programs like
MacLinkPlus from DataViz (or its counterpart in the Microsoft
Windows operating system: ConversionsPlus), often a better way
is to use a platform-independent format, such as Adobe's
portable document format
Documents posted on the Internet in a fancier format than HTML
are commonly in the PDF format.
- Software to read and print PDF files
(i.e., Adobe Acrobat Reader) is a free download from
- The Adobe software to create and edit PDF files (including converting a PostScript file to PDF),
If all you want to do with a computer is surf the Internet and send/receive
e-mail, then OS X is a great improvement over OS 9.
If you want to do other things with a computer, be sure and check to
see if the applications software that you want to use
is available for OS X, before you decide to switch to OS X.
While OS X is a definite improvement over OS 9, what really matters
to most computer users is the availability of applications software.
When Apple abandoned OS 9 in May 2002, I believe Apple shot itself
in the foot, because there is less applications software available for
OS X than for OS 9.
One of the traditional problems with Apple computers is that they always
had a much smaller share of the computer market than machines that ran
some version of the Microsoft Windows operating system, which means that
there always was less applications software for the Apple than for Windows.
Now that Apple has converted to OS X,
the scarcity of applications software is a bigger problem for users of
This document is at
created 11 June 2002, modified 6 Oct 2009
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