Denuclearization Agreements
With North Korea

Copyright 2018 by Ronald B. Standler
No copyright claimed for quotations.
No copyright claimed for works of the U.S. Government.

Table of Contents

Introduction
List of Agreements
Full text of 15 June 2000 First North/South Korean summit
Full text of 19 Sep 2005 Six-Party Agreement
Full text of 13 Feb 2007 Six-Party Agreement
Full text of 20 July 2007 Six-Party Agreement
Full text of 4 Oct 2007 Second North/South Korean summit
Full text of 12 July 2008 Six-Party Agreement
Full text of 27 April 2018 Panmunjom Declaration between North and South Koreas
Full text of 12 June 2018 Statement at Kim/Trump summit
Full text of 19 Sep 2018 Pyongyang Declaration between North and South Koreas



Introduction

In March 2017, I began writing an essay on Trump's failure to denuclearize North Korea. That essay includes
As a resource for students, professors, and historians, this webpage collects links to denuclearization agreements with North Korea. Full-text of these agreements is remarkably difficult to find on the Internet. I searched Google, and I used the search function at the websites of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S. State Dept, the Republic of Korea (i.e., South Korea) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the China Ministry of Foreign Affairs.   I have no confidence that I have found all of the denuclearization agreements with North Korea.

Below, I posted the full text of the documents since January 2005.

The official name for North Korea is the "Democratic People's Republic Of Korea" (DPRK). I refuse to use that name because North Korea is not democratic, but is a one-party, Stalinist dictatorship led by three generations of the Kim family.

List of Agreements

  1. "Armistice Agreement for the Restoration of the South Korean State," (27 July 1953). Copy at U.S. National Archives;   U.S. State Dept.   North Korea abrogated this Armistice Agreement several times, most recently in March 2013. The Telegraph.

  2. "The Text of the Agreement of 20 July 1977 Between the Agency and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for the Application of Safeguards in Respect of a Research Reactor Facility." Copy at IAEA.   Suspended on 10 April 1992.

  3. "Agreement of 30 January 1992 Between the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." Copy at IAEA.

  4. "Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula." (Signed 20 January 1992, Effective 19 February 1992) Copy at U.S. State Dept. First use of phrase "denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula".

  5. "Joint Statement of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the United States of America," (11 June 1993).

  6. "The Withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the International Atomic Energy Agency," (13 June 1994). Copy at IAEA.

  7. "Agreed Framework Of 21 October 1994 Between The United States Of America And The Democratic People's Republic Of Korea." Copy at IAEA and U.S. State Dept.

  8. First North/South Korean summit (15 June 2000) quoted below.

  9. "U.S.-D.P.R.K. Joint Communiqué," (12 Oct 2000). Copy at U.S. State Dept.

  10. "9 January 2003 Withdrawal of DPRK from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." Copy at New York Times.

  11. The Six-Party Talks on denuclearization of North Korea began in August 2003. Each of the first three rounds resulted in a chairman's statement, but no written agreement. (See ArmsControlAssn.org.)

    "Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks Beijing 19 September 2005." Copy at U.S. State Dept and BBC. Quoted below.

  12. "13 February 2007 [Fifth Round of] Six-Party Agreement on North Korean Nuclear Program." Copy at armscontrol.org;   U.S. State Dept;   and Washington Post. Quoted below.

  13. "Press Communiqué of the Head of Delegation Meeting of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks (20 July 2007)." Copy at China. Quoted below.

  14. Second North/South Korean summit (4 Oct 2007) quoted below. Copy at New York Times.

  15. "Press Communiqué of the Heads of Delegation Meeting of The Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks (12 July 2008)." Copy at ROK;   Japan;   and China. Quoted below.

    In April 2009, North Korea expelled the international inspectors from North Korea. IAEA.   In April 2009, North Korea also quit the Six-Party Talks. The Telegraph(14Apr2009);   The Telegraph(4Aug2009).

  16. Leap-Day Agreement between U.S. and DPRK (29 Feb 2012). North Korea agreed to a moratorium on nuclear weapons tests and long-range missile launches, suspend production of enriched uranium, and allow IAEA inspectors to return to Yongbyon. The U.S. agreed to provide 20,000 metric tons of food per month for one year. (See, e.g., U.S. State Dept;   Washington Post;   New York Times.) However, there are two versions of the written so-called agreement, one by each Party. The deal collapsed in April 2012, after North Korea launched a satellite.

  17. 27 April 2018 Panmunjom Declaration, quoted below.

  18. 12 June 2018 Statement at Kim/Trump summit in Singapore, quoted below.

  19. 19 Sep 2018 Pyongyang Declaration, quoted below.

15 June 2000: First North/South Korean Summit

On 15 June 2000, South Korean President Kim Dae Jung and North Korean leader Kim Jong Il issued the following agreement at the end of the first summit between leaders of North and South Koreas.

15 June Joint Declaration

True to the noble will of all the fellow countrymen for the peaceful reunification of the country, Chairman Kim Jong-il of the National Defence Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea had a historic meeting and summit in Pyongyang from June 13 to 15, 2000.

The heads of the North and the South, considering that the recent meeting and summit — the first of their kind in history of division — are events of weighty importance in promoting mutual understanding, developing inter-Korean relations and achieving peaceful reunification, declare as follows:
  1. The North and the South agreed to solve the question of the country's reunification independently by the concerted efforts of the Korean nation responsible for it.

  2. The North and the South, recognising that a proposal for federation of lower stage advanced by the North side and a proposal for confederation put forth by the South side for the reunification of the country have elements in common, agreed to work for the reunification in this direction in the future.

  3. The North and the South agreed to settle humanitarian issues, including exchange of visiting groups of separated families and relatives and the issue of unconverted long-term prisoners, as early as possible on the occasion of August 15 this year.

  4. The North and the South agreed to promote the balanced development of the national economy through economic cooperation and build mutual confidence by activating cooperation and exchanges in all fields, social, cultural, sports, public health, environmental and so on.

  5. The North and the South agreed to hold dialogues between the authorities as soon as possible to implement the above-mentioned agreed points in the near future.
President Kim Dae-jung cordially invited Chairman Kim Jong-il of the DPRK National Defence Commission to visit Seoul and Chairman Kim Jong-il agreed to visit Seoul at an appropriate time in the future.
"North-South Joint Declaration," BBC, 15 June 2000.

19 Sep 2005: Joint Statement of the
Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks

Here is the full text of this historic document. Note that North Korea subsequently breached §1(A) of this agreement in a huge way.
The Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks was held in Beijing, China among the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America from July 26th to August 7th, and from September 13th to 19th, 2005.

Mr. Wu Dawei, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC, Mr. Kim Gye Gwan, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the D.P.R.K.; Mr. Kenichiro Sasae, Director-General for Asian and Oceanian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; Mr. Song Min-soon, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of the R.O.K.; Mr. Alexandr Alekseyev, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; and Mr. Christopher Hill, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the United States attended the talks as heads of their respective delegations.

Vice Foreign Minister Wu Dawei chaired the talks.

For the cause of peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and in Northeast Asia at large, the Six Parties held, in the spirit of mutual respect and equality, serious and practical talks concerning the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula on the basis of the common understanding of the previous three rounds of talks, and agreed, in this context, to the following:
  1. The Six Parties unanimously reaffirmed that the goal of the Six-Party Talks is the verifiable denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner.
    1. The D.P.R.K. committed to abandoning all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programs and returning, at an early date, to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons and to IAEA safeguards.
    2. The United States affirmed that it has no nuclear weapons on the Korean Peninsula and has no intention to attack or invade the D.P.R.K. with nuclear or conventional weapons.
    3. The R.O.K. reaffirmed its commitment not to receive or deploy nuclear weapons in accordance with the 1992 Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, while affirming that there exist no nuclear weapons within its territory.
    4. The 1992 Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula should be observed and implemented.
    5. The D.P.R.K. stated that it has the right to peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The other parties expressed their respect and agreed to discuss, at an appropriate time, the subject of the provision of light water reactor to the D.P.R.K.

  2. The Six Parties undertook, in their relations, to abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and recognized norms of international relations.
    1. The D.P.R.K. and the United States undertook to respect each other's sovereignty, exist peacefully together, and take steps to normalize their relations subject to their respective bilateral policies.
    2. The D.P.R.K. and Japan undertook to take steps to normalize their relations in accordance with the Pyongyang Declaration, on the basis of the settlement of unfortunate past and the outstanding issues of concern.

  3. The Six Parties undertook to promote economic cooperation in the fields of energy, trade and investment, bilaterally and/or multilaterally.
    1. China, Japan, R.O.K., Russia and the U.S. stated their willingness to provide energy assistance to the D.P.R.K.
    2. The ROK reaffirmed its proposal of July 12th 2005 concerning the provision of 2 million kilowatts of electric power to the D.P.R.K.

  4. The Six Parties committed to joint efforts for lasting peace and stability in Northeast Asia.
    1. The directly related parties will negotiate a permanent peace regime on the Korean Peninsula at an appropriate separate forum.
    2. The Six Parties agreed to explore ways and means for promoting security cooperation in Northeast Asia.

  5. The Six Parties agreed to take coordinated steps to implement the aforementioned consensus in a phased manner in line with the principle of "commitment for commitment, action for action".

  6. The Six Parties agreed to hold the Fifth Round of the Six-Party Talks in Beijing in early November 2005 at a date to be determined through consultations.
"Joint Statement of the Fourth Round of the Six-Party Talks Beijing 19 September 2005," U.S. State Dept. [Second-level outline (e.g., A, B, C, ...) added by Standler.]

13 February 2007: Six-Party Agreement

After six days of negotiations, six countries on 13 Feb 2007 reached an agreement on a series of initial steps aimed at freezing North Korea's nuclear weapons program. North Korea subsequently completely breached §II(1-2). The text of the agreement follows:

The Third Session of the Fifth Round of the Six-Party Talks was held in Beijing among the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America from 8 to 13 February 2007.

Mr. Wu Dawei, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC; Mr. Kim Gye Gwan, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DPRK; Mr. Kenichiro Sasae, Director-General for Asian and Oceanian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; Mr. Chun Yung-woo, Special Representative for Korean Peninsula Peace and Security Affairs of the ROK Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Mr. Alexander Losyukov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; and Mr. Christopher Hill, Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Department of State of the United States attended the talks as heads of their respective delegations.

Vice Foreign Minister Wu Dawei chaired the talks.
  1. The Parties held serious and productive discussions on the actions each party will take in the initial phase for the implementation of the Joint Statement of 19 September 2005. The Parties reaffirmed their common goal and will to achieve early denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner and reiterated that they would earnestly fulfill their commitments in the Joint Statement. The Parties agreed to take coordinated steps to implement the Joint Statement in a phased manner in line with the principle of "action for action".

  2. The Parties agreed to take the following actions in parallel in the initial phase:
    1. The DPRK will shut down and seal for the purpose of eventual abandonment the Yongbyon nuclear facility, including the reprocessing facility and invite back [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] personnel to conduct all necessary monitoring and verifications as agreed between IAEA and the DPRK.
    2. The DPRK will discuss with other parties a list of all its nuclear programs as described in the Joint Statement, including plutonium extracted from used fuel rods, that would be abandoned pursuant to the Joint Statement.
    3. The DPRK and the US will start bilateral talks aimed at resolving pending bilateral issues and moving toward full diplomatic relations. The US will begin the process of removing the designation of the DPRK as a state-sponsor of terrorism and advance the process of terminating the application of the Trading with the Enemy Act with respect to the DPRK.
    4. The DPRK and Japan will start bilateral talks aimed at taking steps to normalize their relations in accordance with the Pyongyang Declaration, on the basis of the settlement of unfortunate past and the outstanding issues of concern.
    5. Recalling Section 1 and 3 of the Joint Statement of 19 September 2005, the Parties agreed to cooperate in economic, energy and humanitarian assistance to the DPRK. In this regard, the Parties agreed to the provision of emergency energy assistance to the DPRK in the initial phase. The initial shipment of emergency energy assistance equivalent to 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil (HFO) will commence within next 60 days.
    The Parties agreed that the above-mentioned initial actions will be implemented within next 60 days and that they will take coordinated steps toward this goal.

  3. The Parties agreed on the establishment of the following Working Groups (WG) in order to carry out the initial actions and for the purpose of full implementation of the Joint Statement:
    1. Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
    2. Normalization of DPRK-US relations
    3. Normalization of DPRK-Japan relations
    4. Economy and Energy Cooperation
    5. Northeast Asia Peace and Security Mechanism
    The WGs will discuss and formulate specific plans for the implementation of the Joint Statement in their respective areas. The WGs shall report to the Six-Party Heads of Delegation Meeting on the progress of their work. In principle, progress in one WG shall not affect progress in other WGs. Plans made by the five WGs will be implemented as a whole in a coordinated manner.

    The Parties agreed that all WGs will meet within next 30 days.

  4. During the period of the Initial Actions phase and the next phase, which includes provision by the DPRK of a complete declaration of all nuclear programs and disablement of all existing nuclear facilities, including graphite-moderated reactors and reprocessing plant, economic, energy and humanitarian assistance up to the equivalent of 1 million tons of heavy fuel oil (HFO), including the initial shipment equivalent to 50,000 tons of HFO, will be provided to the DPRK.

    The detailed modalities of the said assistance will be determined through consultations and appropriate assessments in the Working Group on Economic and Energy Cooperation.

  5. Once the initial actions are implemented, the Six Parties will promptly hold a ministerial meeting to confirm implementation of the Joint Statement and explore ways and means for promoting security cooperation in Northeast Asia.

  6. The Parties reaffirmed that they will take positive steps to increase mutual trust, and will make joint efforts for lasting peace and stability in Northeast Asia. The directly related parties will negotiate a permanent peace regime on the Korean Peninsula at an appropriate separate forum.

  7. The Parties agreed to hold the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks on 19 March 2007 to hear reports of WGs and discuss on actions for the next phase.
"Six-Party Agreement on North Korean Nuclear Program," armscontrol.org, posted 1 March 2007.

20 July 2007: Six-Party Agreement

Press Communiqué of the Heads of Delegation
Meeting of The Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks

  1. The Head of Delegation Meeting of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks was held in Beijing from 18 to 20 July 2007. Mr. Wu Dawei, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC; Mr. Kim Gye Gwan, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DPRK; Mr. Kenichiro Sasae, Director-General for Asian and Oceanian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; Mr. Chun Yung-woo, Special Representative for Korean Peninsula Peace and Security Affairs of the ROK Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Mr. Christopher Hill, Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the Department of State of the United States; and Mr. Vladimir Rakhmanin, Ambassador of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation attended the talks as heads of their respective delegations. Vice Foreign Minister Wu Dawei chaired the meeting.

  2. The Parties reviewed the work and progress since the First Session of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks, expressed satisfaction with the constructive efforts made by all parties to advance the Six-Party Talks process, and welcomed that productive bilateral consultations and coordination were conducted to enhance their mutual trust and improve relations with each other.

  3. For the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, normalization of relations between the countries concerned and lasting peace and stability in Northeast Asia, the Six Parties held candid and practical discussions on the work during the period of the next phase and reached the following general consensus:
    1. The Parties reiterated that they will earnestly fulfill their commitments in the Joint Statement of 19 September 2005 and the agreement of 13 February 2007.
    2. The DPRK side reiterated that it will earnestly implement its commitments to a complete declaration of all nuclear programs and disablement of all existing nuclear facilities.
    3. Economic, energy and humanitarian assistance up to the equivalent of 950,000 tons of heavy fuel oil (HFO) will be provided to the DPRK.
    4. All other parties undertook to fulfill their respective obligations as listed in the September 19 Joint Statement and February 13 agreement in line with the principle of "action for action".

  4. To implement the above-mentioned general consensus, the Parties decided to take the following steps:
    1. Before the end of August, the Working Groups for Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, Normalization of DPRK-US relations, Normalization of DPRK-Japan relations, Economy and Energy Cooperation and Northeast Asia Peace and Security Mechanism will convene their respective meetings to discuss plans for the implementation of the general consensus.
    2. In early September, the Parties will hold the Second Session of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks in Beijing to hear reports of all Working Groups and work out the roadmap for the implementation of the general consensus.
    3. Following the Second Session of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks, the Parties will hold a ministerial meeting in Beijing as soon as possible to confirm and promote the implementation of the September 19 Joint Statement, the February 13 agreement and the general consensus, and explore ways and means to enhance security cooperation in Northeast Asia.
"Press Communiqué of the Heads of Delegation Meeting of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks, Beijing, 20 July 2007," China, 20 July 2007.

4 Oct 2007: Second North/South Korean Summit

On 4 October 2007, South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong Il issued the following agreement at the end of the second summit between leaders of North and South Koreas. This is an unofficial English-translation by Yonhap News Agency. Notice the promise in §4 "to resolve the nuclear problem on the Korean peninsula."

Declaration for Advancing Inter-Korean
Relations, Peace, and Prosperity

President Roh Moo-hyun of the Republic of Korea visited Pyongyang during October 2-4, 2007, in accordance with the agreement between President Roh Moo-hyun and Chairman Kim Jong-il of the National Defense Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

Historic summit meetings and several talks were held during the visit.

During the summit meetings and talks, the two leaders reaffirmed the spirit of the June 15 Joint Declaration and candidly discussed agenda concerning advancement of inter-Korean relations, the realization of peace and common prosperity, and the unification of the Korean peninsula.

While expressing the belief that Koreans, when their will and strength are combined, can open a new era of national prosperity and unification, both parties declared the following on the basis of the June 15 Joint Declaration:
  1. The South and the North adhere to and implement the June 15 Joint Declaration.
    1. The South and the North will resolve the problem of unification through "the spirit of our own initiative", and through the primacy of Korean people's dignity and interests.
    2. The South and the North explore measures to commemorate the day of June 15 as a commitment to the June 15th Joint Declaration.

  2. The South and the North will transcend differences in ideology and institutions, thereby transforming inter-Korean relations into one of mutual respect and trust.
    1. The South and the North do not interfere in the internal affairs and resolve issues of inter-Korean relations on the principles of reconciliation, cooperation, and unification.
    2. The South and the North will develop inter-Korean relations toward the direction of unification and adjust necessary legal institutional apparatus respectively.
    3. The South and the North will actively seek dialogue and contacts in all fields including in the parliament, in order to address issues relating to the expansion and development of inter-Korean relations according to the wishes of the Korean people.

  3. The South and the North will closely cooperate in order to terminate military hostilities, ease tension and ensure peace on the Korean peninsula.
    1. The South and the North will not take a hostile stance towards each other, and will reduce military tension, and resolve issues of conflict through dialogue and negotiation.
    2. The South and the North oppose any form of war on the Korean peninsula and firmly comply with the obligations of non-aggression.
    3. The South and the North designate the common fishery zone in order to prevent accidental clashes in the West Sea. Both sides will hold Defense Ministers' talks in Pyongyang November this year in order to discuss military confidence-building measures, including methods to foster the aforementioned zone into a zone of peace, as well as military assurance measures for various cooperative projects.

  4. The South and the North share the wish to terminate the existing armistice regime and to build a permanent peace regime, and cooperate to pursue issues related to declaring the end of the Korean War by holding on the Korean Peninsula, a Three or Four party summit of directly-related sides.
    1. The South and the North will jointly endeavor to smoothly implement the June 19 Joint Declaration and February 13 Agreement of the Six party talks in order to resolve the nuclear problem on the Korean peninsula.

  5. The South and the North will actively promote, expand and develop economic cooperation projects for balanced development of national economy and common prosperity on the principles of common interest and prosperity.
    1. The South and the North will encourage investment for economic cooperation, bolster infrastructure and develop natural resources, and provide preferential treatment and privileges concurrent with the special nature of intra-national cooperative projects.
    2. The South and the North will establish "The West Sea Special Zone for Peace and Cooperation" encompassing Haeju area and its adjoining waters, and actively seek the designation of a common fishery zone and peace zone, construction of special economic zone, and utilization of the Haeju port, direct passage of civilian vessels to Haeju, and joint utilization of the Han River estuary.
    3. The South and the North will complete the first phase construction of the Kaesong Industrial Complex as early as possible, and launch the second phase development, and begin railway cargo transportation linking Moonsan and Bongdong, and promptly undertake institutional measures to resolve problems including passage of people, communications and customs clearance.
    4. The South and the North will discuss and undertake improvement of Kaesong-Shineuiju railway and Kaesong-Pyongyang highway for joint use.
    5. The South and the North will construct ship-building cooperative complexes in Anbyun and Nampo, and promote cooperative projects in various areas, including agriculture, health, medicine and environmental protection.
    6. The South and the North upgrade the existing "South-North Committee for Promotion of Economic Cooperation" to "South-North Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation" at the Deputy Prime Minister level in order to facilitate inter-Korean economic cooperation projects.

  6. The South and the North will develop exchanges and cooperation in the fields of history, linguistics, education, science and technology, culture and arts, and sports in order to cherish the long history and proud culture of the Korean people.
    1. The South and the North will implement the Paektu Mountain tour and establish a direct Paektu Mountain-Seoul air route.
    2. The South and the North will send inter-Korea cheer teams to 2008 Beijing International Olympics via the Seoul-Shineuiju railway for the first time.

  7. The South and the North will actively promote humanitarian cooperative projects.
    1. The South and the North expand the reunion of separated families and relatives and promote exchange of visual materials.
    2. To this end, both parties will have resident representatives upon the completion of Mount Keumgang Meeting Post and routinely implement the reunion of separated families and relatives.
    3. The South and the North will actively cooperate under the principle of brotherhood, humanitarianism and mutual assistance in contingencies, including natural disasters.

  8. The South and the North will strengthen cooperation for the interest of the Korean nation, and the rights and interests of overseas Korean nationals in the international arena.
    1. The South and the North will hold the inter-Korean Prime Ministers' Meeting in order to implement this declaration and convene its first meeting in Seoul November this year.
    2. The South and the North will discuss issues of concern for Inter-Korean development through frequent holding of the inter-Korean summit.
"Full text of agreement reached at inter-Korean summit," Hankyoreh, 4 Oct 2007. [Second-level outline added by Standler for each of the paragraphs.]

12 July 2008: Six-Party Agreement

Press Communiqué of the Heads of Delegation
Meeting of The Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks

North Korea breached §I and §III(F) of this Agreement.
The Heads of Delegation Meeting of the Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks was held in Beijing among the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America from 10 to 12 July 2008.

Mr. Wu Dawei, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the PRC; Mr. Kim Gye Gwan, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DPRK; Mr. Saiki Akitaka, Director-General for Asian and Oceanian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan; Mr. Kim Sook, Special Representative for Korean Peninsula Peace and Security Affairs of the ROK Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Mr. Alexei Borodavkin, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation; and Mr. Christopher R. Hill, Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs of the State Department of the United States attended the talks as heads of their respective delegations.

Vice Foreign Minister Wu Dawei chaired the meeting.

The Parties spoke highly of the positive progress made in the second-phase actions for the implementation of the Joint Statement and agreed unanimously that the progress contributes to peace and stability in Northeast Asia. The Parties reached important consensus on the full and balanced implementation of the second-phase actions.
  1. In accordance with the Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks adopted on 19 September 2005, the six parties agreed to establish a verification mechanism within the Six-Party Talks framework to verify the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
    1. The verification mechanism consists of experts of the six parties and is responsible to the Working Group on Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
    2. The verification measures of the verification mechanism include visits to facilities, review of documents, interviews with technical personnel and other measures unanimously agreed upon among the six parties.
    3. When necessary, the verification mechanism can welcome the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide consultancy and assistance for relevant verification.
    4. The specific plans and implementation of the verification will be decided by the Working Group on Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in line with the principle of consensus.

  2. The six parties agreed to establish a monitoring mechanism within the Six-Party Talks framework.
    1. The monitoring mechanism consists of the heads of delegation of the six parties.
    2. The mission of the monitoring mechanism is to ensure that all parties honor and fulfill their respective commitments made within the Six-Party Talks framework, including non-proliferation and economic and energy assistance to the DPRK.
    3. The monitoring mechanism will carry out its responsibilities in ways considered effective by the six parties.
    4. The heads of delegation of the six parties can authorize appropriate officials to carry out their responsibilities.

  3. The Parties formulated a timetable for economic and energy assistance along with disablement of the Yongbyon nuclear facilities.
    1. Disablement of the Yongbyon nuclear facilities by the DPRK and the remaining heavy fuel oil (HFO) and non-HFO assistance to the DPRK by other parties will be fully implemented in parallel.
    2. All parties will work to complete their HFO and non-HFO assistance to the DPRK by the end of October 2008.
    3. The United States and Russia will work to complete the provision of their remaining share of HFO assistance to the DPRK by the end of October 2008.
    4. China and the ROK will work to sign with the DPRK binding agreements for the provision of their remaining share of non-HFO assistance by the end of August 2008.
    5. Japan expressed its willingness to take part in the economic and energy assistance to the DPRK as soon as possible when the environment is in place.
    6. The DPRK will work to complete the disablement of the Yongbyon nuclear facilities by the end of October 2008.

  4. The Parties agreed to continue with their discussions on the "Guiding Principles of Peace and Security in Northeast Asia".

  5. The Parties reiterated that the Six-Party Ministerial Meeting will be held in Beijing at an appropriate time.

  6. The Parties had a preliminary exchange of views on the third-phase actions for the implementation of the Joint Statement of 19 September 2005. The Parties agreed to continue to advance the Six-Party Talks process in a comprehensive manner and work together for lasting peace and stability in Northeast Asia.
"Press Communique of the Heads of Delegation Meeting of The Sixth Round of the Six-Party Talks Beijing, 12 July 2008" ROK. [Second-level outline (e.g., A, B, C, ...) added by Standler.]

27 April 2018: Panmunjom Declaration

North Korea promised "complete denuclearization" in §3(D). The unofficial English-translation of the statement from the Moon/Kim summit says:

Panmunjom Declaration
for Peace, Prosperity and Unification
of the Korean Peninsula

During this momentous period of historical transformation on the Korean Peninsula, reflecting the enduring aspiration of the Korean people for peace, prosperity and unification, President Moon Jae-in of the Republic of Korea and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea held an Inter-Korean Summit Meeting at the ‘Peace House’ at Panmunjom on April 27, 2018.

The two leaders solemnly declared before the 80 million Korean people and the whole world that there will be no more war on the Korean Peninsula and thus a new era of peace has begun.

The two leaders, sharing the firm commitment to bring a swift end to the Cold War relic of longstanding division and confrontation, to boldly approach a new era of national reconciliation, peace and prosperity, and to improve and cultivate inter-Korean relations in a more active manner, declared at this historic site of Panmunjom as follows:
  1. South and North Korea will reconnect the blood relations of the people and bring forward the future of co-prosperity and unification led by Koreans by facilitating comprehensive and groundbreaking advancement in inter-Korean relations. Improving and cultivating inter-Korean relations is the prevalent desire of the whole nation and the urgent calling of the times that cannot be held back any further.
    1. South and North Korea affirmed the principle of determining the destiny of the Korean nation on their own accord and agreed to bring forth the watershed moment for the improvement of inter-Korean relations by fully implementing all existing agreements and declarations adopted between the two sides thus far.
    2. South and North Korea agreed to hold dialogue and negotiations in various fields including at high level, and to take active measures for the implementation of the agreements reached at the Summit.
    3. South and North Korea agreed to establish a joint liaison office with resident representatives of both sides in the Gaeseong region in order to facilitate close consultation between the authorities as well as smooth exchanges and cooperation between the peoples.
    4. South and North Korea agreed to encourage more active cooperation, exchanges, visits and contacts at all levels in order to rejuvenate the sense of national reconciliation and unity. Between South and North, the two sides will encourage the atmosphere of amity and cooperation by actively staging various joint events on the dates that hold special meaning for both South and North Korea, such as June 15, in which participants from all levels, including central and local governments, parliaments, political parties, and civil organizations, will be involved. On the international front, the two sides agreed to demonstrate their collective wisdom, talents, and solidarity by jointly participating in international sports events such as the 2018 Asian Games.
    5. South and North Korea agreed to endeavor to swiftly resolve the humanitarian issues that resulted from the division of the nation, and to convene the Inter-Korean Red Cross Meeting to discuss and solve various issues including the reunion of separated families. In this vein, South and North Korea agreed to proceed with reunion programs for the separated families on the occasion of the National Liberation Day of August 15 this year.
    6. South and North Korea agreed to actively implement the projects previously agreed in the 2007 October 4 Declaration, in order to promote balanced economic growth and co-prosperity of the nation. As a first step, the two sides agreed to adopt practical steps towards the connection and modernization of the railways and roads on the eastern transportation corridor as well as between Seoul and Sinuiju for their utilization.

  2. South and North Korea will make joint efforts to alleviate the acute military tension and practically eliminate the danger of war on the Korean Peninsula. Alleviating the military tension and eliminating the danger of war is a highly significant challenge directly linked to the fate of the Korean people and also a vital task in guaranteeing their peaceful and stable lives.
    1. South and North Korea agreed to completely cease all hostile acts against each other in every domain, including land, air and sea, that are the source of military tension and conflict. In this vein, the two sides agreed to transform the demilitarized zone into a peace zone in a genuine sense by ceasing as of May 1 this year all hostile acts and eliminating their means, including broadcasting through loudspeakers and distribution of leaflets, in the areas along the Military Demarcation Line.
    2. South and North Korea agreed to devise a practical scheme to turn the areas around the Northern Limit Line in the West Sea into a maritime peace zone in order to prevent accidental military clashes and guarantee safe fishing activities.
    3. South and North Korea agreed to take various military measures to ensure active mutual cooperation, exchanges, visits and contacts. The two sides agreed to hold frequent meetings between military authorities, including the Defense Ministers Meeting, in order to immediately discuss and solve military issues that arise between them. In this regard, the two sides agreed to first convene military talks at the rank of general in May.

  3. South and North Korea will actively cooperate to establish a permanent and solid peace regime on the Korean Peninsula. Bringing an end to the current unnatural state of armistice and establishing a robust peace regime on the Korean Peninsula is a historical mission that must not be delayed any further.
    1. South and North Korea reaffirmed the Non-Aggression Agreement that precludes the use of force in any form against each other, and agreed to strictly adhere to this Agreement.
    2. South and North Korea agreed to carry out disarmament in a phased manner, as military tension is alleviated and substantial progress is made in military confidence-building.
    3. During this year that marks the 65th anniversary of the Armistice, South and North Korea agreed to actively pursue trilateral meetings involving the two Koreas and the United States, or quadrilateral meetings involving the two Koreas, the United States and China with a view to declaring an end to the War, turning the armistice into a peace treaty, and establishing a permanent and solid peace regime.
    4. South and North Korea confirmed the common goal of realizing, through complete denuclearization, a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula. South and North Korea shared the view that the measures being initiated by North Korea are very meaningful and crucial for the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and agreed to carry out their respective roles and responsibilities in this regard. South and North Korea agreed to actively seek the support and cooperation of the international community for the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
The two leaders agreed, through regular meetings and direct telephone conversations, to hold frequent and candid discussions on issues vital to the nation, to strengthen mutual trust and to jointly endeavor to strengthen the positive momentum towards continuous advancement of inter-Korean relations as well as peace, prosperity and unification of the Korean Peninsula.

In this context, President Moon Jae-in agreed to visit Pyongyang this fall.

April 27, 2018
Done in Panmunjom

Moon Jae-in
President, Republic of Korea

Kim Jong Un
Chairman, State Affairs Commission
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
"Full text of joint declaration issued at inter-Korean summit," Yonhap, 20:01 South Korean Time, 27 April 2018.
My comments on this agreement are in my essay.

12 June 2018: Statement by Kim and Trump

North Korea promised "complete denuclearization" in ¶2 and ¶3(3). Here is the entire statement that Kim and Trump signed at the end of the summit in Singapore.
[¶1]   President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) held a first, historic summit in Singapore on June 12, 2018.

[¶2]   President Trump and Chairman Kim Jong Un conducted a comprehensive, in-depth, and sincere exchange of opinions on the issues related to the establishment of new U.S.-DPRK relations and the building of a lasting and robust peace regime on the Korean Peninsula. President Trump committed to provide security guarantees to the DPRK, and Chairman Kim Jong Un reaffirmed his firm and unwavering commitment to complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

[¶3]   Convinced that the establishment of new U.S.-DPRK relations will contribute to the peace and prosperity of the Korean Peninsula and of the world, and recognizing that mutual confidence building can promote the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, President Trump and Chairman Kim Jong Un state the following:
  1. The United States and the DPRK commit to establish new U.S.-DPRK relations in accordance with the desire of the peoples of the two countries for peace and prosperity.

  2. The United States and the DPRK will join their efforts to build a lasting and stable peace regime on the Korean Peninsula.

  3. Reaffirming the April 27, 2018 Panmunjom Declaration, the DPRK commits to work toward complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

  4. The United States and the DPRK commit to recovering POW/MIA remains, including the immediate repatriation of those already identified.
[¶4]   Having acknowledged that the U.S.-DPRK summit — the first in history — was an epochal event of great significance in overcoming decades of tensions and hostilities between the two countries and for the opening up of a new future, President Trump and Chairman Kim Jong Un commit to implement the stipulations in this joint statement fully and expeditiously. The United States and the DPRK commit to hold follow-on negotiations, led by the U.S. Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, and a relevant high-level DPRK official, at the earliest possible date, to implement the outcomes of the U.S.-DPRK summit.

[¶5]   President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea have committed to cooperate for the development of new U.S.-DPRK relations and for the promotion of peace, prosperity, and security of the Korean Peninsula and of the world.

DONALD J. TRUMP
President of the United States of America

KIM JONG UN
Chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

June 12, 2018
Sentosa Island
Singapore
"Joint Statement of President Donald J. Trump of the United States of America and Chairman Kim Jong Un of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at the Singapore Summit," White House, 12 June 2018. [Paragraph numbers added by Standler.]
This Statement is grossly inadequate, as explained in my essay.

19 Sep 2018: Pyongyang Joint Declaration

Here is the full-text of the 19 Sep 2018 Pyongyang Joint Declaration, in English translation from The Korea Times:
Moon Jae-in, President of the Republic of Korea and Kim Jong-un, Chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea held the Inter-Korean Summit Meeting in Pyongyang on September 18-20, 2018.

The two leaders assessed the excellent progress made since the adoption of the historic Panmunjeom Declaration, such as the close dialogue and communication between the authorities of the two sides, civilian exchanges and cooperation in many areas, and epochal measures to defuse military tension.

The two leaders reaffirmed the principle of independence and self-determination of the Korean nation, and agreed to consistently and continuously develop inter-Korean relations for national reconciliation and cooperation, and firm peace and co-prosperity, and to make efforts to realize through policy measures the aspiration and hope of all Koreans that the current developments in inter-Korean relations will lead to reunification.

The two leaders held frank and in-depth discussions on various issues and practical steps to advance inter-Korean relations to a new and higher dimension by thoroughly implementing the Panmunjeom Declaration, shared the view that the Pyongyang Summit will be an important historic milestone, and declared as follows.
  1. The two sides agreed to expand the cessation of military hostility in regions of confrontation such as the DMZ into the substantial removal of the danger of war across the entire Korean Peninsula and a fundamental resolution of the hostile relations.
    1. The two sides agreed to adopt the "Agreement on the Implementation of the Historic Panmunjeom Declaration in the Military Domain" as an annex to the Pyongyang Declaration, and to thoroughly abide by and faithfully implement it, and to actively take practical measures to transform the Korean Peninsula into a land of permanent peace.
    2. The two sides agreed to engage in constant communication and close consultations to review the implementation of the Agreement and prevent accidental military clashes by promptly activating the Inter-Korean Joint Military Committee.

  2. The two sides agreed to pursue substantial measures to further advance exchanges and cooperation based on the spirit of mutual benefit and shared prosperity, and to develop the nation's economy in a balanced manner.
    1. The two sides agreed to hold a ground-breaking ceremony within this year for the east-coast and west-coast rail and road connections.
    2. The two sides agreed, as conditions ripe, to first normalize the Gaeseong industrial complex and the Mt. Geumgang Tourism Project, and to discuss the issue of forming a west coast joint special economic zone and an east coast joint special tourism zone.
    3. The two sides agreed to actively promote south-north environment cooperation so as to protect and restore the natural ecology, and as a first step to endeavor to achieve substantial results in the currently on-going forestry cooperation.
    4. The two sides agreed to strengthen cooperation in the areas of prevention of epidemics, public health and medical care, including emergency measures to prevent the entry and spread of contagious diseases.

  3. The two sides agreed to strengthen humanitarian cooperation to fundamentally resolve the issue of separated families.
    1. The two sides agreed to open a permanent facility for family reunion meetings in the Mt. Geumgang area at an early date, and to promptly restore the facility toward this end.
    2. The two sides agreed to resolve the issue of video meetings and exchange of video messages among the separated families as a matter of priority through the inter-Korean Red Cross talks.

  4. The two sides agreed to actively promote exchanges and cooperation in various fields so as to enhance the atmosphere of reconciliation and unity and to demonstrate the spirit of the Korean nation both internally and externally.
    1. The two sides agreed to further promote cultural and artistic exchanges, and to first conduct a performance of the Pyongyang Art Troupe in Seoul in October this year.
    2. The two sides agreed to actively participate together in the 2020 Summer Olympic Games and other international games, and to cooperate in bidding for the joint hosting of the 2032 Summer Olympic Games.
    3. The two sides agreed to hold meaningful events to celebrate the 11th anniversary of the October 4 Declaration, to jointly commemorate the 100th anniversary of the March First Independence Movement Day, and to hold working-level consultations toward this end.

  5. The two sides shared the view that the Korean Peninsula must be turned into a land of peace free from nuclear weapons and nuclear threats, and that substantial progress toward this end must be made in a prompt manner.
    1. First, the North will permanently dismantle the Dongchang-ri missile engine test site and launch platform under the observation of experts from relevant countries.
    2. The North expressed its willingness to continue to take additional measures, such as the permanent dismantlement of the nuclear facilities in Yeongbyeon, as the United States takes corresponding measures in accordance with the spirit of the June 12 US-DPRK Joint Statement.
    3. The two sides agreed to cooperate closely in the process of pursuing complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

  6. Chairman Kim Jong-un agreed to visit Seoul at an early date at the invitation of President Moon Jae-in.
"[FULL TEXT] Pyongyang Declaration," Korea Times, 20:52 Korean time, 19 Sep 2018. [Second-level outline changed by Standler from numbers inside a circle to upper-case letters.]
Also at: R.O.K.;   Korean Broadcasting System.  


This document is at http://www.rbs0.com/NKagreem.htm
created 13 July 2018, modified 22 Sep 2018

Return to my essay on Trump's failure to denuclearize North Korea.