German-American Baking Ingredients
Copyright 2012 by Ronald B. Standler
Table of Contents
- German flour
- other: cocoa
- A. american flour
- B. flavors: citrus oils, fruit, cocoa, spices
- C. american sugar
- D. american baking powder
- E. american cooking oil
- F. american milk
- american to metric measurement
- baking websites
This webpage has a collection of links to ingredients for baking bread,
muffins, cakes, cookies, etc. I list manufacturers in both Germany and
The following links are provided only as a convenience to readers of this webpage.
I receive neither income nor other consideration
as a result of referrals or providing links to any entity.
I make neither representations nor warranties about
the contents of the websites at the following links.
The links to american manufacturers include products that I use in cooking,
as well as to other major manufacturers that I have not used.
deutsche Zutaten für Back
deutsches Mehl und Backhefe
In Germany, there are three common kinds of flour:
- Weizenmehl, wheat flour. (Typ 405 = pastry flour, Typ 812 = bread flour, Typ 1050 = bagels)
- Dinkelmehl, spelt flour, an ancient kind of wheat now obsolete in the USA
- Roggenmehl, rye flour
- flour manufacturers:
- yeast manufacturers for household baking
- Deutsche Hefewerke
- Uniferm makes Fermipan yeast
andere deutsche Zutaten
Wide variety of cooking ingredients:
Baking powder is an american invention.
German baking powder from Dr. Oetker in Germany
contains sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium bicarbonate and cornstarch —
which makes it heat activated (i.e., slow acting). American baking powders
are double acting and are not interchangeable with slow-acting powders.
- European cocoa:
- Callebaut in Belgium
- Droste in Netherlands
- Lindt & Sprüngli in Switzerland
- Dr. Oetker in Germany
- Ritter in Germany
- Schokinag in Mannheim, Germany
- Valrhona in France;
cocoa US$14/250 g in Sep 2012
Mailing 5 pounds (2.3 kg) per U.S. Post Office "Priority Mail"
from the USA to Germany costs US$ 47 in Sep 2012.
Many american companies will not send to foreign nations.
However, the following websites have information and
recipes that may be helpful to people in Europe.
A. American Flour
The flours most commonly used in american homes are made by either
Gold Medal or
and are typically bleached to make it look white.
Bread made with this flour is unsatisfying to me,
because it is flavorless and soft.
For that reason, I purchase flour, seeds, and grains from the following:
- King Arthur flour homepage
- KA all-purpose unbleached wheat flour, 11.7% protein
- KA Bread Flour 12.7% protein — unbleached wheat flour plus malted barley flour
- Arrowhead Mills homepage
- Arrowhead Mills flours
- Arrowhead Mills seeds & grains
- Bob's Red Mill homepage
- Bob's Red Mill grains & seeds
- Bob's Red Mill brown sesame seeds
- Bob's Red Mill flours
- Quaker Oats old-fashioned oats; yellow corn meal
- The most commonly available brand of yeast in grocery stores in the USA is
Fleischmann's. Nearly all yeast sold to home bakers
in the USA is active dry yeast. The cake yeast, which must be refrigerated, is
no longer available in most grocery stores in the USA.
- Fleischmann's yeast, made in Canada.
- Lesaffre Yeast,
a subsidiary of a French company, manufacturers the SAF-brand in Mexico.
In 2001, Lesaffre purchased Red Star
yeast in the USA.
B. American Flavors
B. 1. Fruit flavors
- Boyajian natural citrus oils
- LorAnn flavored oils, some have artificial flavor
- Nature's flavors
B. 2. Fruit
- Cherry Bay
bottles of concentrated Michigan cherry juice,
also dried cherries, dried blueberries, etc.
- Mariani dried fruit: apricots,
blueberries, cherries, pineapple, strawberries.
- Ocean Spray
dried cranberries, also cranberries infused with cherry juice.
- Pennant Fruit Products
candied peel of oranges and lemons, used in hot-cross buns.
- Sun Maid raisins and other dried fruit
(e.g., apricots, apples, peaches, cherries, pineapple).
- Sunkist dried fruit:
blueberries, cherries, cranberries.
- frozen or canned:
- Dole frozen fruit:
blueberries, cherries, pineapple, strawberries.
- Wyman's blueberries: frozen, canned,
or bottled juice
- Oregon canned fruit:
blueberries, cherries, grapes, raspberries, etc.
B. 3. Fruit Juice
- Fruit juice in the USA in the 1950s through 1990s was normally sold as a
frozen concentrate, from which most of the water had been removed.
The user added 1100 ml water to 340 ml of concentrated juice
to make 100% juice.
In the 1980s and continuing through the mid-1990s, one company in Florida
froze freshly squeezed orange juice, and sold it in bottles
containing 1 liter of frozen juice.
This frozen juice was expensive, but delicious.
This frozen juice is no longer available in the USA.
Since the mid-1990s, "not from concentrate" pasteurized 100% juice
has been sold in grocery stores in the USA. While tastier than orange juice
from concentrate, the pasteurization adversely affects the flavor.
- Dole pineapple juice in cans and
- Florida's Natural
not from concentrate orange and grapefruit juices
- Knudsen's Juices include:
blueberry, cherry, cranberry, pomegranate.
- Minute Maid
frozen concentrated orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemonade, limeade;
frozen 100% lemon juice;
not from concentrate orange juice.
- Ocean Spray
originally made cranberry juice,
now also makes blueberry, cherry, and grapefruit juices.
- Simply Orange
not from concentrate orange juice, grapefruit juice, limeade, lemonade
originally made grape juices from Concord (purple), red, and white grapes,
now also makes frozen concentrated cranberry juice.
B. 4. Preserves & Marmalade
pie fillings: blueberry, cherry, lemon, peach, etc.
- Lucky Leaf
pie fillings: blueberry, cherry, lemon, peach, etc.
- Smucker is a commonly available brand of preserves in the USA.
Smucker purchased both Knott's and Dickinson's.
- Smucker's preserves:
blueberry, cherry, peach, pineapple, strawberry, orange marmalade, etc.
- Knott's Berry Farm preserves
- Dickinson's preserves:
apricot, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, peach, raspberry, strawberry.
Also lemon curd.
- Trappist Preserves,
30 flavors made by monks. Flavors include cranberry conserve and lemon marmalade.
B. 5. Cocoa in the USA
- Most cocoa in the USA is acidic and reacts with sodium bicarbonate to
release CO2 gas, as leavening in cooking.
In contrast, many cocoas in Europe are treated with alkali (so-called
"Dutch process") to neutralize the acid. The alkali cocoas have a milder flavor.
The two types of cocoa are not interchangeable in recipes.
- Hershey's is the major american manufacturer of chocolate.
Hershey's common "natural" cocoa is acidic.
Hershey's "special dark"
cocoa is Dutch-process.
Despite the Italian name, this is an american company in San Francisco, California, USA.
- Scharffen Berger.
Despite the German name, this is an american company in San Francisco, California, USA.
B. 6. Spices in the USA
- McCormick spices, includes former Schilling's spices
- Spice Islands
C. American Sugar
- C&H cane sugar
- Domino cane sugar
- Karo "light" (i.e., clear) corn syrup
D. American Baking Powder
- Fast-acting baking powder releases bubbles of CO2 in the wet batter
at room temperature,
while slow-acting baking powder releases the gas while the batter is in the hot oven.
Double-acting baking powder combines both fast- and slow-acting.
The traditional american baking powder contained an aluminum salt
(e.g., sodium aluminum sulfate or sodium aluminum phosphate).
Because aluminum is a toxic metal, it is preferable to avoid eating
The following american baking powders are claimed to be free of aluminum:
E. American Cooking Oils
- The traditional american lipid for cooking was butter.
In an attempt to obtain less saturated fat, people switched to
vegetable oil made from soybeans.
All cooking oils contain 14 g fat per 15 ml of oil.
Since the 1970s, health-conscious americans have mostly used either
safflower oil or canola oil.
Both safflower and canola oil have only 1 g/15 ml of saturated fat,
compared with at least
2 g/15 ml of saturated fat for other vegetable oils.
For people trying to maximize their monounsaturated fat, safflower oil is the best
with 11 g/15 ml of monounsaturated fat,
followed by canola oil with 8 or 9 g/15 ml of monounsaturated fat.
- Crisco, the major manufacturer of shortening
in the USA, also manufactures oils made from soybeans, corn, peanuts, olives,
- Hollywood makes safflower
and canola oils. This is the major source for safflower oil for home
cooking in the USA.
- Mazola traditionally made corn oil,
but now also makes olive oil and canola oil.
- Spectrum Organics makes
safflower oil and eleven other oils.
- Wesson makes oils from soybeans,
corn, and canola.
F. American Milk
Milk from cows is much more common in the USA than in Germany.
Most milk sold in the USA:
- is pasteurized (exposed to brief heat to kill most bacteria) and
will remain useful for at least 14 days when refrigerated at
temperatures no higher than 4 celsius.
- is homogenized, to prevent separation of the cream from the milk.
- has vitamin D added, to aid in absorption of calcium. Some dairies also
add vitamin A to milk.
Types of milk:
- "Whole milk" sold in the USA contains 3.3% fat (8 g/240 ml).
Milk from cows contains between 3.6% and 5.2% fat, and this raw milk
is commonly adjusted to the minimum legal fat content by dairies,
with the cream sold separately.
- Low-fat milk is available in 2% and 1% fat.
- Fat-free milk (formerly called "skim milk") contains no fat.
- Buttermilk is cultured with Streptococcus lactis bacteria.
Buttermilk is a common ingredient in pancakes and biscuits in the USA,
I also use it in making chocolate cake.
When used in cooking, the lactic acid from the bacteria reacts with
sodium bicarbonate to provide leavening.
The lactic acid gives buttermilk a sour taste.
Nearly all milk in the USA comes from a local dairy, there are no national brands.
The following links are to a few large dairies in the USA:
- Borden's in Texas and southeastern USA
- Dean Dairy in Pennsylvania
- Hood in Massachusetts
- Roberts Dairy in Omaha, Nebraska and Kansas City, Missouri
- Shamrock Farms in Phoenix, Arizona
american to metric measurement
People in the USA still use old units of measurement that are derived from
the British Empire in the 1700s.
Personally, I have used the metric system exclusively since 1970,
partly because of my early career as a scientist and engineer,
and partly because of my belief in harmonization with international standards.
The conversions below are from customary U.S. measurements to metric.
The British (i.e., Imperial) volume units — from teaspoons to quarts —
are different from the american unit with the same name.
A handy list of american to metric conversion factors, rounded to two digits,
is at the U.S. National Institute of
1 teaspoon (tsp.) = 4.93 ml
1 tablespoon (Tbsp. or Tblsp.) = 14.8 ml
1 fluid ounce (fl.oz.) = 29.6 ml
1 cup = 237 ml
1 pint liquid = 473 ml
1 quart liquid = 946 ml
1 ounce avoirdupois (oz.) = 28.3 grams
1 pounds avoirdupois (lb.) = 454 grams
I remember the old British rhyme: "A pint is a pound, the world around."
This means a pint of
beer water has a mass of
approximately one pound avoirdupois.
I remember that a pound avoirdupois is approximately 454 grams,
and a gram of water has a volume of approximately 1 ml,
which makes a pint approximately 454 ml (too small by about 4%).
A cup is a half-pint, and a quart is two pints,
which makes a cup approximately 227 ml and a quart approximately 900 ml.
A better approximation for a cup is 240 ml.
There are 16 fluid ounces in a pint, and 16 ounces avoirdupois in a pound.
There are 3 teaspoons in one tablespoon, and 2 tablespoons in a fluid ounce.
I prefer websites by scientists who understand why their recipes
produce good results, and who use metric units exclusively.
- Steve B., who was educated as an organic chemist, posted a
website about making bread at home, from
June 2008 until November 2010.
- Stefanie Herberth in Germany has posted
Hefe und Mehr, a website
about baking bread, with english translation.
- Prof. Andrew Ross at
Oregon State University
has a blog about the chemistry of cooking.
- Harold McGee writes Curious Cook,
blog created in August 2006.
- For recipes, see also the websites by manufacturers of
King Arthur flour and
King Arthur has a wealth of information, including its
of formulas and references.
this document is at http://www.rbs0.com/Kueche.htm
first posted 10 Sep 2012, revised 13 Feb 2015
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