German-American Baking Ingredients

Copyright 2012 by Ronald B. Standler

Table of Contents


German flour

other: cocoa

A. american flour

B. flavors: citrus oils, fruit, cocoa, spices

C. american sugar

D. american baking powder

E. american cooking oil

F. american milk

american to metric measurement

baking websites


This webpage has a collection of links to ingredients for baking bread, muffins, cakes, cookies, etc. I list manufacturers in both Germany and the USA.

The following links are provided only as a convenience to readers of this webpage. I receive neither income nor other consideration as a result of referrals or providing links to any entity. I make neither representations nor warranties about the contents of the websites at the following links. The links to american manufacturers include products that I use in cooking, as well as to other major manufacturers that I have not used.

deutsche Zutaten für Back

deutsches Mehl und Backhefe

In Germany, there are three common kinds of flour:
  1. Weizenmehl, wheat flour. (Typ 405 = pastry flour,   Typ 812 = bread flour,   Typ 1050 = bagels)
  2. Dinkelmehl, spelt flour, an ancient kind of wheat now obsolete in the USA
  3. Roggenmehl, rye flour
flour manufacturers:




yeast manufacturers for household baking


Deutsche Hefewerke






Uniferm makes Fermipan yeast


andere deutsche Zutaten

Wide variety of cooking ingredients:

Dr. Oetker

Baking powder is an american invention. German baking powder from Dr. Oetker in Germany contains sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium bicarbonate and cornstarch — which makes it heat activated (i.e., slow acting). American baking powders are double acting and are not interchangeable with slow-acting powders.

European cocoa:
Callebaut in Belgium

Droste in Netherlands

Lindt & Sprüngli in Switzerland

Dr. Oetker in Germany

Ritter in Germany

Schokinag in Mannheim, Germany

Valrhona in France;   cocoa US$14/250 g in Sep 2012
Cocoa in Europe is processed with alkali, the so-called Dutch process.


Mailing 5 pounds (2.3 kg) per U.S. Post Office "Priority Mail" from the USA to Germany costs US$ 47 in Sep 2012. Many american companies will not send to foreign nations. However, the following websites have information and recipes that may be helpful to people in Europe.

A.   American Flour

The flours most commonly used in american homes are made by either Gold Medal or Pillsbury and are typically bleached to make it look white.   Bread made with this flour is unsatisfying to me, because it is flavorless and soft.   For that reason, I purchase flour, seeds, and grains from the following:
King Arthur flour homepage
KA all-purpose unbleached wheat flour, 11.7% protein
KA Bread Flour 12.7% protein — unbleached wheat flour plus malted barley flour

Arrowhead Mills homepage
Arrowhead Mills flours
Arrowhead Mills seeds & grains

Bob's Red Mill homepage
Bob's Red Mill grains & seeds
      Bob's Red Mill brown sesame seeds
Bob's Red Mill flours

Quaker Oats old-fashioned oats; yellow corn meal

American Yeast

The most commonly available brand of yeast in grocery stores in the USA is Fleischmann's. Nearly all yeast sold to home bakers in the USA is active dry yeast. The cake yeast, which must be refrigerated, is no longer available in most grocery stores in the USA.

Fleischmann's yeast, made in Canada.

Lesaffre Yeast, a subsidiary of a French company, manufacturers the SAF-brand in Mexico. In 2001, Lesaffre purchased Red Star yeast in the USA.

B.   American Flavors

B. 1.   Fruit flavors

Boyajian natural citrus oils

LorAnn flavored oils, some have artificial flavor

Nature's flavors

Amoretti natural fruit syrup, no artificial colors, made in California

Monin fruit syrup, some have artificial colors, some have artifical flavors, made in Florida

B. 2.   Fruit


Cherry Bay Orchards: bottles of concentrated Michigan cherry juice (i.e., cherry syrup), also dried cherries, dried blueberries, etc. Also sold on

Mariani dried fruit: apricots, blueberries, cherries, pineapple, strawberries.

Ocean Spray dried cranberries, also cranberries infused with cherry juice.

Pennant Fruit Products candied peel of oranges and lemons, used in hot-cross buns.

Sun Maid raisins and other dried fruit (e.g., apricots, apples, peaches, cherries, pineapple).

Sunkist dried fruit: blueberries, cherries, cranberries.

frozen or canned:

Dole frozen fruit: blueberries, cherries, pineapple, strawberries.

Wyman's blueberries: frozen, canned, or bottled juice

Oregon canned fruit: blueberries, cherries, grapes, raspberries, etc.

B. 3.   Fruit Juice

Fruit juice in the USA in the 1950s through 1990s was normally sold as a frozen concentrate, from which most of the water had been removed. The user added 1100 ml water to 340 ml of concentrated juice to make 100% juice.

In the 1980s and continuing through the mid-1990s, one company in Florida froze freshly squeezed orange juice, and sold it in bottles containing 1 liter of frozen juice. This frozen juice was expensive, but delicious. This frozen juice is no longer available in the USA.

Since the mid-1990s, "not from concentrate" pasteurized 100% juice has been sold in grocery stores in the USA. While tastier than orange juice from concentrate, the pasteurization adversely affects the flavor.

Dole pineapple juice in cans and frozen concentrate

Florida's Natural not from concentrate orange and grapefruit juices

Knudsen's Juices include: blueberry, cherry, cranberry, pomegranate.

Minute Maid frozen concentrated orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemonade, limeade; frozen 100% lemon juice; not from concentrate orange juice.

Ocean Spray originally made cranberry juice, now also makes blueberry, cherry, and grapefruit juices.

Simply Orange not from concentrate orange juice, grapefruit juice, limeade, lemonade

Welch's originally made grape juices from Concord (purple), red, and white grapes, now also makes frozen concentrated cranberry juice.

B. 4.   Preserves & Marmalade

Comstock pie fillings: blueberry, cherry, lemon, peach, etc.

Lucky Leaf pie fillings: blueberry, cherry, lemon, peach, etc.

Smucker is a commonly available brand of preserves in the USA. Smucker purchased both Knott's and Dickinson's.
Smucker's preserves: blueberry, cherry, peach, pineapple, strawberry, orange marmalade, etc.

Knott's Berry Farm preserves

Dickinson's preserves: apricot, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, peach, raspberry, strawberry. Also lemon curd.

Trappist Preserves, 30 flavors made by monks. Flavors include cranberry conserve and lemon marmalade.

B. 5.   Cocoa in the USA

Most cocoa in the USA is acidic and reacts with sodium bicarbonate to release CO2 gas, as leavening in cooking. In contrast, many cocoas in Europe are treated with alkali (so-called "Dutch process") to neutralize the acid. The alkali cocoas have a milder flavor. The two types of cocoa are not interchangeable in recipes.

Hershey's is the major american manufacturer of chocolate.   Hershey's common "natural" cocoa is acidic. Hershey's "special dark" cocoa is Dutch-process.

Ghirardelli.   Despite the Italian name, this is an american company in San Francisco, California, USA.


Scharffen Berger.   Despite the German name, this is an american company in San Francisco, California, USA.

B. 6.   Spices in the USA

McCormick spices, includes former Schilling's spices

Spice Islands

C.   American Sugar

C&H cane sugar

Domino cane sugar

Karo "light" (i.e., clear) corn syrup

D.   American Baking Powder

Fast-acting baking powder releases bubbles of CO2 in the wet batter at room temperature, while slow-acting baking powder releases the gas while the batter is in the hot oven. Double-acting baking powder combines both fast- and slow-acting.

The traditional american baking powder contained an aluminum salt (e.g., sodium aluminum sulfate or sodium aluminum phosphate). Because aluminum is a toxic metal, it is preferable to avoid eating aluminum compounds. The following american baking powders are claimed to be free of aluminum:




E.   American Cooking Oils

The traditional american lipid for cooking was butter. In an attempt to obtain less saturated fat, people switched to vegetable oil made from soybeans.

All cooking oils contain 14 g fat per 15 ml of oil.

Since the 1970s, health-conscious americans have mostly used either safflower oil or canola oil. Both safflower and canola oil have only 1 g/15 ml of saturated fat, compared with at least 2 g/15 ml of saturated fat for other vegetable oils.

For people trying to maximize their monounsaturated fat, safflower oil is the best with 11 g/15 ml of monounsaturated fat, followed by canola oil with 8 or 9 g/15 ml of monounsaturated fat.

Crisco, the major manufacturer of shortening in the USA, also manufactures oils made from soybeans, corn, peanuts, olives, and canola.

Hollywood makes safflower and canola oils. This is the major source for safflower oil for home cooking in the USA.

Mazola traditionally made corn oil, but now also makes olive oil and canola oil.

Spectrum Organics makes safflower oil and eleven other oils.

Wesson makes oils from soybeans, corn, and canola.

F.   American Milk

Milk from cows is much more common in the USA than in Germany. Most milk sold in the USA:
Types of milk:
Nearly all milk in the USA comes from a local dairy, there are no national brands. The following links are to a few large dairies in the USA:
Borden's in Texas and southeastern USA

Dean Dairy in Pennsylvania

Hood in Massachusetts

Roberts Dairy in Omaha, Nebraska and Kansas City, Missouri

Shamrock Farms in Phoenix, Arizona

american to metric measurement

People in the USA still use old units of measurement that are derived from the British Empire in the 1700s. Personally, I have used the metric system exclusively since 1970, partly because of my early career as a scientist and engineer, and partly because of my belief in harmonization with international standards.

The conversions below are from customary U.S. measurements to metric. The British (i.e., Imperial) volume units — from teaspoons to quarts — are different from the american unit with the same name.

A handy list of american to metric conversion factors, rounded to two digits, is at the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

American Units of Volume

Unit American
1 teaspoon (tsp.) 4.93 ml
1 tablespoon (Tbsp. or Tblsp.) 3 tsp. 14.8 ml
1 fluid ounce (fl.oz.) 29.6 ml
1 cup 8 fl.oz. 237 ml
1 pint 16 fl.oz. 473 ml
1 quart 2 pints 946 ml
1 gallon 4 quarts 3785 ml


1 ounce avoirdupois (oz.) = 28.3 grams
1 pound avoirdupois (lb.) = 454 grams

handy rule

I remember the old British rhyme: "A pint is a pound, the world around." This means a pint of beer water has a mass of approximately one pound avoirdupois.

I remember that a pound avoirdupois is approximately 454 grams, and a gram of water has a volume of approximately 1 ml, which makes a pint approximately 454 ml (too small by about 4%). A cup is a half-pint, and a quart is two pints, which makes a cup approximately 227 ml and a quart approximately 900 ml. A better approximation for a cup is 240 ml.

There are 16 fluid ounces in a pint, and 16 ounces avoirdupois in a pound.

baking websites

I prefer websites by scientists who understand why their recipes produce good results, and who use metric units exclusively.

this document is at

first posted 10 Sep 2012, revised 19 Oct 2016

return to my homepage