Compilation of Links for
Coronavirus in USA

Copyright 2020-2022 by Ronald B. Standler

Table of Contents


Introduction

I initially wrote and revised this webpage during 24 March to 14 June 2020, as a guide to overwhelming amounts of information on the coronavirus epidemic, which was then a novel disease. After many people in the USA refused to be vaccinated and refused to wear a mask, I made a major revision of this webpage on 21 August 2021.

This webpage contains my collection of links to resources on COVID-19. It is absolutely imperative that we stop the COVID-19 epidemic, before hospitals are overwhelmed, before medical supplies are exhausted, and before more people needlessly die from a preventable disease.

A disclaimer: I am not a physician. My educational background is in physics (Ph.D. 1977). I earned a law degree and I am licensed to practice law in Massachusetts since 1998, although I do not practice in the area of health law. But since 1971, I have occasionally done searches of medical literature for my scholarly research projects.

Terse History

Sometime in mid-November 2019, a new pneumonia originated in Wuhan, China. The Chinese government concealed the new disease until the end of December 2019. On 8 January 2020. the Chinese government announced that the cause of this new disease is a coronavirus. The World Health Organization uses the name COVID-19 to refer to the disease caused by this novel coronavirus.

COVID-19 can be transmitted in two ways:
  1. breathing droplets ejected by an infected person who coughs or sneezes.

  2. touching an infected surface. The virus can remain viable for hours on metal or plastic surfaces.

Mitigation Measures

  1. Two injections of Pfizer or Moderna vaccine, spaced three or four weeks apart, followed by a booster injection at least five months after the second injection. A second booster can be given at least four months after the first booster.

  2. Always wear a face mask when in public places. On 14 Jan 2022 the CDC said N95 masks were best.

  3. At least six feet (i.e., two meters) of space between adjacent people, called "social distancing".

  4. Stay at home as much as possible.   Avoid large gatherings of people (e.g., workplaces, restaurants, theaters, churches, schools and universities, airports, cruise ships, sporting events, concerts, conferences, conventions, exhibitions, political rallies, festivals, parades, large weddings, etc.), because large groups help spread viruses. Fully vaccinated individuals are themselves at lower risk in large gatherings, however they can still have an asymptomatic infection and transmit their virus to unvaccinated people.

  5. Both frequent hand washing and not touching fingers to one's face. If soap and water are not available for washing hands, then use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
Full vaccination is the most important mitigation measure. On 16 July 2021, Dr. Walensky, head of the CDC, reviewed the data on new cases/day, and concluded: "This is becoming a pandemic of the unvaccinated." White House.

Face masks and social distancing help avoid the transmission of viruses between people.

Measures 2-5 will also help prevent spread of influenza viruses and rhinoviruses, in addition to helping slow the spread of COVID-19.

The government sometimes suggests relaxed mitigation measures, especially allowing large gatherings. But we can help prevent the spread of coronavirus by using full mitigation measures whenever possible. Large gatherings for recreation or entertainment are not worth risking coronavirus infections, which can kill people. In summary, more mitigation measures means fewer new cases/day, fewer deaths, and possible control of the epidemic. When we relax mitigation measures, we are inviting the next variant to again overwhelm us, or allowing current variants to again surge.

When people become seriously ill with coronavirus, they then wish they had used more mitigation measures — been fully vaccinated and boosted, worn a mask, avoided large gatherings, etc. But after infection, it is too late to prevent infection. The lesson to be learned from their regret is to consistently use maximum mitigation measures.

Links:

Facts About the Coronavirus Epidemic

The first death from coronavirus in the USA was on 6 February 2020. In May 2022. the official U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) coronavirus death toll exceeded a staggering one million.

coronavirus.gov  main webpage for U.S. citizens

Food & Drug Administration (FDA) press releases

At the end of March 2022, the White House created covid.gov to help Americans find treatment for coronavirus. The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services has a website on test-to-treat that has a list of local clinics that can prescribe and provide antiviral drugs.
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) coronavirus main webpage

CDC press releases

official number of cases and deaths from coronavirus in the USA

CDC weekly summary of COVID-19 activity, issued on Friday afternoon, beginning 4 April 2020.   The CDC also has a webpage with similar weekly information on influenza.
Alternative information on number of new cases/day and number of deaths from coronavirus is available from Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center in Baltimore, Maryland.   Center for Health Security at Johns Hopkins Univ.

Symptoms of Coronavirus Infection

On 27 April 2020, the CDC published a list of six classic symptoms of COVID-19 that is updated:
  1. Cough,
  2. Shortness of breath, or difficulty breathing,
  3. Fever or Chills,
  4. Muscle or body aches,
  5. Sore throat,
  6. Recent loss of taste or smell.
The omicron variant may be more likely to produce upper respiratory symptoms (e.g., sneezing, nasal congestion, sore throat), making testing essential to distinguish omicron from colds or influenza.

Comorbidities

Comorbidities are risk factors for more severe COVID-19 and death from coronavirus. Common comorbidities include:
  1. elderly (i.e., age over 65 years),
  2. immunocompromised (e.g., cancer chemotherapy, recipient of transplanted organ, HIV/AIDS, use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications),
  3. pulmonary disease (e.g., COPD, smoking),
  4. cancer,
  5. cardiac disease,
  6. chronic kidney or liver disease,
  7. diabetes,
  8. obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2),
  9. pregnancy and recent pregnancy.
A combination of two or more comorbidities in one coronavirus patient increases the chance of death. Therefore, patients with multiple comorbidities should be very careful to always use maximum mitigation measures.   Link for laymen: CDC,   healthcare professionals: CDC.

International

Although my webpage links to coronavirus resources in the USA, readers may also find useful the World Health Organization (WHO) webpage on coronavirus. Beginning on 21 January 2020, the WHO issued daily situation reports on the novel coronavirus pandemic.   The WHO technical brief on omicron variant.

Booster Vaccinations

There has been an incremental series of authorizations and recommendations for third doses of Pfizer and Modern vaccines. This series was necessary because of evolving knowledge about the vaccines.

Read the official FDA and CDC webpages about booster vaccinations:
  1. 12 Aug 2021: third dose of Pfizer or Moderna for immunocompromised patients, FDA press release

  2. 2 Sep 2021 and updated: immunocompromised patients, CDC Guidance

  3. 22-24 Sep 2021: Pfizer booster for
    1. all adults at least 65 years of age,
    2. individuals 18 through 64 years of age who are either:
      1. at high risk of severe COVID-19, or
      2. whose frequent institutional or occupational exposure to SARS-CoV-2 puts them at high risk of serious complications of COVID-19 including severe COVID-19.
    FDA and CDC press releases

  4. 20-21 Oct 2021: boosters for Moderna or J&J recipients, FDA and CDC press releases
    Boosters no longer need to be the same brand of vaccine as the primary vaccination.

  5. 19 Nov 2021: all adults who have second Pfizer or Moderna immunization are eligible for a booster,
    FDA and CDC press releases.

  6. 9 Dec 2021: Pfizer booster for 16- and 17-year old recipients, FDA press release

  7. 3-4 Jan 2022: Pfizer booster for 12- to 15-year old recipients. Further, the interval between the second dose of Pfizer vaccine and first booster is shortened to five months for everyone at least 12 years of age. Also, third dose of Pfizer for 5-11 year old immunocompromised children (e.g., because of solid organ transplants), four weeks after second dose.
    FDA and CDC press releases

  8. 5 Jan 2022: Pfizer booster for 12- to 17-year old recipients, CDC press release

  9. 7 Jan 2022: booster now available five months after second dose of Moderna vaccine, FDA press release

  10. 29 March 2022: Second booster vaccination available to all adults at least 50 years of age, and all immunocompromised patients at least 12 years of age. For both groups of patients, the second booster is given "at least 4 months after receipt of a first booster dose". FDA and CDC press releases

  11. 17 May 2022: FDA approves Pfizer booster for 5 to 11 year old children. FDA press release.

  12. 17 June 2022: FDA approves Moderna and Pfizer vaccines for children "down to 6 months of age". These two vaccines were previously approved for children older than 5 years and for adults, so now everyone can receive the primary series of coronavirus vaccine. FDA and CDC press releases.


Convenient links:   These webpages are updated when necessary.

Where to receive coronavirus vaccine

Locations for coronavirus vaccine: CDC webpage on how to find coronavirus vaccine.

In September 2021, coronavirus immunizations are readily available in the USA from locations that provide other immunizations, such as pharmacies and medical clinics. Coronavirus immunizations are free in the USA.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire state government webpage on coronavirus

Governor Sununu issued Executive Orders on coronavirus, beginning 13 March 2020.

NH Health & Human Services (DHHS)
NH DHHS Health Alert Messages, beginning 21 January 2020

Massachusetts

Massachusetts Department of Public Health main page on coronavirus
COVID-19 Guidance and Directives
COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment
press releases related to COVID-19

Governor Baker's Orders on Coronavirus:
  1. State-of-Emergency to Respond to COVID-19, 10 March 2020.

  2. 23 March 2020 Order closing nonessential businesses and services, and prohibiting indoor gatherings of more than 10 people.   Definition of nonessential.

  3. Other orders on coronavirus, including recent items.

Massachusetts state courts response to COVID-19.

Coronavirus in Boston from Boston Public Health Commission.

News Media

Associated Press top stories homepage
recent AP articles on the coronavirus epidemic

The Washington Post homepage.
Washington Post coronavirus webpage

Subscribe to the free Washington Post newsletter on coronavirus.

The New York Times homepage
New York Times coronavirus webpage with links to recent news articles and subscription to their free coronavirus newsletter.

Since January 2020, The New York Times published a daily summary of news about the coronavirus epidemic Go to the homepage of that newspaper and search for "live".

Cable News Network (CNN) homepage.

Politico webpage with links to their recent articles about coronavirus. Politico is a respected online news service about politics in the USA and Europe.

Copyright 2020-2022 by Ronald B. Standler

This document is at   http://www.rbs0.com/COVID19.htm
created 24 March 2020, revised 18 June 2022

Return to Standler's personal homepage.